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art nouveau essay ART NOUVEAU IN EUROPE. European Art Nouveau evolved quite differently in college essay numerous countries in the late 19th century with the primary purpose of challenging the established order within the college others applied and fine arts. College Helping! One aspect young artists and designers found particularly objectionable was the essay unwillingness of the essay official art institutions in compare potter essay many European countries to accommodate exhibitions of the decorative or applied arts. Throughout Europe in the 1880s and '90s artists formed societies in opposition to the ruling institutions. College Essay Helping! The new groups arranged exhibitions which not only featured modern painting and sculpture but also furniture, ceramics, glassware, metalwork, textiles and jewelry. It is this spirit of revolt which ties together all styles and movements commonly associated with Modernism; it is also the essay custom writing prompts underlying theme of the Norwest collection. From the British Arts and Crafts Movement in the late 1880s to the outbreak of World War II, it was this single purpose that fired a collective imagination and quickly took hold in Europe.

The term Modernism applies to those forward-looking architects, designers and craftsmen who managed to escape Historicism, the tyranny of college, previous historical styles. Potter! Centuries of servitude to revivalist design in form and decoration were forever liberated by their ground-breaking visions. While Art Nouveau overlapped the more rustic Arts and Crafts Movement, it was Art Nouveau which not only introduced a new, international design vocabulary, but became the first popular 20th-century art movement. Art Nouveau, in particular, marked a rebellion against the historically eclectic aspects of Victorian art. Helping Others! It found its principal forms in nature: flora and fauna (marine as well as terrestrial) of every species. Flowers, clinging vines and tendrils, leafage of every variety, gourd-forms, exotic marine life (including jellyfish and anemones) (2) , even insects were respectfully rendered#150;a whole botanical and zoological garden of writhing forms. Gardens being immensely popular as exaltations of nature, evoked inspired designs. Blossoms and admission custom tendrils became frozen in space, as if plant food had been fed to college essay helping others furniture. This abandon for the organic was clearly injected into the style. Beyond the naturalistic imagery especially prevalent with the School of Nancy which was based on a thorough analysis of plant morphology, artists also used nature to symbolize a state of mind or an writing intellectual concept.

There were many associations between Art Nouveau and the Symbolist movement in art, literature and drama. For some, Symbolism represented the essay thought of 1900 while Art Nouveau was its gesture. The adjectives so often used to describe Art Nouveau elements: sinuous, curvilinear, tendrilous, undulating, arabesque, whiplash, serpentine, florid and sensuous capture the style's plasticity of form. How best to avoid the right angle and the straight line seemed to be a supreme preoccupation of those architects, artists and artisans identified with the dr. amanda master's cornell movement (3) . It was among the first of the total styles dominating the design of everything, from architectural interiors to hatpins. The era's new psychology identified neurasthenia as the college helping others characteristic modern condition and in our life located its cause in the stressful conditions of urban life. Withdrawal to college essay a private interior space could be seen as a way to soothe frazzled nerves. The Art Nouveau interior, luxuriously appointed, took on a therapeutic function beneficial to an individual's interior psychological state. Art Nouveau artists responded especially well to on my experience exotic materials, such as semi-precious stones, rare woods, ivories and enamels. For many graphic artists, women's hair became a prominent visual device, a kind of exotic plant that swooped and swirled, becoming intertwined with typography and taking on a life of its own. In fact, Art Nouveau popularized a new feminine chic seen in the work of Alphonse Mucha and Raoul Larche (4) among others.

The emerging female psyche and the emancipation of others, women is rising prices and the well expressed in bicycle posters where carefree girls revel in new-found mobility. During this period a series of ambitious world expositions provided venues by which the finest that all countries could offer were given their largest public exposure#150;spectacles of progress and modernity. Between the 1889 Paris Exposition Universelle de Paris (best remembered for college the Eiffel Tower and its glorification of the machine) and harry potter the 1910 Exposition in Brussels, there were nine such world's fairs (the Norwest collection presently features seven known works or models exhibited in the l900 Exposition alone). The l900 Paris Exposition Universelle represented the very apogee of the Art Nouveau movement and it was the most influential in legitimizing the style. Lasting 200 days, it attracted nearly fifty million visitors to its 83,000 exhibits on the Champs-de-Mars.

The 1902 Turin Exposition and the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis were equally important in unveiling and advancing extremely avant-garde works for their time. These international gatherings stimulated considerable demand for the new art and greatly helped to promote domestic industry. Others! Another source of incalculable impact in essay Art Nouveau's evolution was Japonisme, which became the rage in fashionable Western society following the 1854 treaty between America and Japan. Western artists drew on a host of college, compositional devices used by their Japanese counterparts.

Many imitators emerged, in both the fine arts and essay on my experience applied arts; in fact, a profound Oriental influence can be seen in virtually every discipline within the Art Nouveau movement. Among Japan's most enthusiastic proselytizers were Siegfried Bing, Julius Meier-Graefe and others Arthur Lasenby Liberty, all merchants who were destined later to play key roles in the dissemination and marketing of the Art Nouveau movement in college essay helping the decorative arts. Bing, a naturalized Frenchman from Hamburg, moved to Paris where he first established an emporium for Japanese imports and then expanded into his gallery, Maison de L'Art Nouveau, from which the name Art Nouveau derives. Before receiving its final name Art Nouveau (the new art) (5) , the essay helping others French called it Moderne, the Spanish Modernismo (6) , the British Liberty Style, the Germans and man essay Central Europe Jugendstil (youthful style) (7) , the Italians Stile Liberty or Stile Floreale. Bing also published a journal , Le Japon Artistique, (8) which included articles on all aspects of Japanese life.

Another German, the art critic Meier-Graefe, was an entrepreneur and patron similar to college essay others Bing. Being a devotee of modern art, he sought to apply it in a coherent manner to every aspect of interior design. In 1898 he opened his gallery, La Maison Moderne, in the rue des Petits-Champs through which he showcased furnishings designed and manufactured in his workshops. Likewise, Liberty did virtually the same with his London shop. It became a status symbol for Europe's fashion elite, helped considerably to spread the essay life message, and legitimized the new movement's curvilinear grammar of ornament. Especially notable under Liberty's patronage was the remarkably advanced metalwork of Archibald Knox in both his silver(Cymric) and college essay pewter(Tudric) lines. While aspiring to modernity, most European countries were searching also for dr. amanda master's thesis a national style, one that drew upon emblems of heritage and could serve as the country's unique expression of Art Nouveau. College Essay Helping Others! Toward this end Knox achieved great success, finding inspiration in Celtic motifs. And Contrast Potter Essay! Consistently throughout, the glorification of craftmanship#150;handmade and college machine-aided#150;provided a shared foundation for the European Art Nouveau movement. Today, it is a rare and college refined aesthetic that compares to the marvels of such artist-designers as René Lalique, Emile Gallé and Hector Guimard.

While many went on to pursue illustrious careers in other modernist styles, the Art Nouveau sensibility and genius vanished, first challenged by the tensions of a new century and soon after forgotten in the mayhem of the first world war. College! Fortunately, we still have with us a large body of work that is among the most accessible and essay enduring of the college essay modernist era. Director, Arts Program, Norwest Corporation. Adjunct Curator of Design, The Minneapolis Institute of dr. amanda sturgill university, Arts. l) Those wishing to read further on the subject are encouraged to obtain the new paperback, Art Nouveau , by Alaistair Duncan published by Thames and Hudson, London, 1994, a recent edition to its World of Art series. Mr. Duncan provides both an informative perspective and an engaging commentary on the Art Nouveau movement. (Back) 2) Some designers used motifs from marine biology to express the Darwinian theory of evolution. (Back) 3) The Belgian architect Victor Horta designed some of his buildings so that they appear to have no single vertical plumb in their construction. (Back) 4) Larche's series of gilt-bronze lamps celebrated the essay helping others American dancer, Löie Fuller, whose colorful performances at the Folies BergŹre were a source of inspiration to many writers, artists and designers. (Back) 5) The emphasis on new reflected the impact of the theory of evolution expounded by Charles Darwin and supported by college essay helping others, anyone who claimed to essay helping others hold advanced opinions.

The New Spirit was the title of a book of essays by the English critic Havelock Ellis, published in essay of education in our life 1890, in which he reviewed the college essay helping others progress of the admission essay writing literary and philosophical assault on the old culture. (Back) 6) The Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí who designed the Church of the Sagrada Famiglia (a cathedral yet to be completed), the Casa Milà, and numerous other celebrated buildings in Barcelona, was a style unto himself. (Back) 7) Jugendstil is a name derived from Jugend , an avant-garde arts magazine founded in college helping Munich in 1896, known for its advanced graphics and rising prices and the common typography. (Back) 8) In the first issue of Le Japon Artistique , Bing described an essay helping art nouveau which would have a deep and lasting effect on Western design. (Back)

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La mère Grillon, une brave femme, entendue au commerce, appelait le jeune homme et sa compagne: ses deux tourtereaux, et semblait tout attendrie par cet amour avantageux pour sa maison. Le couple s'en venait à petits pas; la yole Madeleine était prête; mais, au moment de monter dedans, ils s'embrassèrent, ce qui fit rire le public amassé sur le pont. Essay Helping? Et M. College Essay Helping Others? Paul, prenant ses rames, partit aussi pour la Grenouillère. Quand ils arrivèrent, il allait être trois heures, et le grand café flottant regorgeait de monde. L'immense radeau, couvert d'un toit goudronné que supportent des colonnes de bois, est relié à l'île charmante de Croissy par deux passerelles dont l'une pénètre au milieu de cet établissement aquatique, tandis que l'autre en fait communiquer l'extrémité avec un îlot minuscule planté d'un arbre et surnommé le Pot à Fleurs, et, de là, gagne la terre auprès du bureau des bains. M. College? Paul attacha son embarcation le long de l'établissement, il escalada la balustrade du café, puis, prenant les mains de sa maîtresse, il l'enleva, et tous deux s'assirent au bout d'une table, face à face. De l'autre côté du fleuve, sur le chemin de halage, une longue file d'équipages s'alignait. Prices And The Common? Les fiacres alternaient avec de fines voitures de gommeux: les uns lourds, au ventre énorme écrasant les ressorts, attelés d'une rosse au cou tombant, aux genoux cassés; les autres sveltes, élancées sur des roues minces, avec des chevaux aux jambes frêles et tendues, au cou dressé, au mors neigeux d'écume, tandis que le cocher, gourmé dans sa livrée, la tête raide en son grand col, demeurait les reins inflexibles et le fouet sur un genou.

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Des femmes, des filles aux cheveux jaunes, aux seins démesurément rebondis, à la croupe exagérée, au teint plâtré de fard, aux yeux charbonnés, aux lèvres sanguinolentes, lacées, sanglées en des robes extravagantes, traînaient sur les frais gazons le mauvais goût criard de leurs toilettes; tandis qu'à côté d'elles des jeunes gens posaient en leurs accoutrements de gravures de modes, avec des gants clairs, des bottes vernies, des badines grosses comme un fil et des monocles ponctuant la niaiserie de leur sourire. L'île est étranglée juste à la Grenouillère, et sur l'autre bord, où un bac aussi fonctionne amenant sans cesse les gens de Croissy, le bras rapide, plein de tourbillons, de remous, d'écume, roule avec des allures de torrent. Essay Helping? Un détachement de pontonniers, en uniforme d'artilleurs, est campé sur cette berge, et les soldats, assis en ligne sur une longue poutre, regardaient couler l'eau. Dans l'établissement flottant, c'était une cohue furieuse et hurlante. Essay Others? Les tables de bois, où les consommations répandues faisaient de minces ruisseaux poisseux, étaient couvertes de verres à moitié vides et entourées de gens à moitié pris. Others? Toute cette foule criait, chantait, braillait. Custom Prompts? Les hommes, le chapeau en arrière, la face rougie, avec des yeux luisants d'ivrognes, s'agitaient en vociférant par un besoin de tapage naturel aux brutes. Helping? Les femmes, cherchant une proie pour le soir, se faisaient payer à boire en attendant; et, dans l'espace libre entre les tables, dominait le public ordinaire du lieu, un bataillon de canotiers chahuteurs avec leurs compagnes en courte jupe de flanelle. Un d'eux se démenait au piano et semblait jouer des pieds et des mains; quatre couples bondissaient un quadrille; et des jeunes gens les regardaient, élégants, corrects, qui auraient semblé comme il faut si la tare, malgré tout, n'eût apparu. Car on writing, sent là, à pleines narines, toute l'écume du monde, toute la crapulerie distinguée, toute la moisissure de la société parisienne: mélange de calicots, de cabotins, d'infimes journalistes, de gentilshommes en curatelle, de boursicotiers véreux, de noceurs tarés, de vieux viveurs pourris; cohue interlope de tous les êtres suspects, à moitié connus, à moitié perdus, à moitié salués, à moitié déshonorés, filous, fripons, procureurs de femmes, chevaliers d'industrie à l'allure digne, à l'air matamore qui semble dire: Le premier qui me traite de gredin, je le crève.

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Ils sont longs comme des échalas, ronds comme des citrouilles, noueux comme des branches d'olivier, courbés en avant ou rejetés en arrière par l'ampleur du ventre, et, invariablement laids, ils sautent dans l'eau qui rejaillit jusque sur les buveurs du café. Malgré les arbres immenses penchés sur la maison flottante et malgré le voisinage de l'eau, une chaleur suffocante emplissait ce lieu. College Essay Helping Others? Les émanations des liqueurs répandues se mêlaient à l'odeur des corps et à celle des parfums violents dont la peau des marchandes d'amour est pénétrée et qui s'évaporaient dans cette fournaise. Essay Helping Others? Mais sous toutes ces senteurs diverses flottait un arôme léger de poudre de riz qui parfois disparaissait, qu'on retrouvait toujours, comme si quelque main cachée eût secoué dans l'air une houppe invisible. Le spectacle était sur le fleuve, où le va-et-vient incessant des barques tirait les yeux. Prices And The? Les canetières s'étalaient dans leur fauteuil en face de leurs mâles aux forts poignets, et elles considéraient avec mépris les quêteuses de dîners rôdant dans 1'île. Quelquefois, quand une équipe lancée passait à toute vitesse, les amis descendus à terre poussaient des cris, et tout le public, subitement pris de folie, se mettait à hurler. Au coude de la rivière, vers Chatou, se montraient sans cesse des barques nouvelles. College Others? Elles approchaient, grandissaient, et, à mesure qu'on reconnaissait les visages, d'autres vociférations partaient. Un canot couvert d'une tente et monté par quatre femmes descendait lentement le courant.

Celle qui ramait était petite, maigre, fanée, vêtue d'un costume de mousse avec ses cheveux relevés sous un chapeau ciré. Importance? En face d'elle, une grosse blondasse habillée en homme, avec un veston de flanelle blanche, se tenait couchée sur le dos au fond du bateau, les jambes en l'air sur le flanc des deux côtés de la rameuse, et elle fumait une cigarette, tandis qu'à chaque effort des avirons sa poitrine et son ventre frémissaient, ballottés par la secousse. College Essay Helping Others? Tout à l'arrière, sous la tente, deux belles filles grandes et minces l'une brune et l'autre blonde, se tenaient par la taille en regardant sans cesse leurs compagnes. Un cri partit de la Grenouillère: V'là Lesbos! et, tout à coup, ce fut une clameur furieuse; une bousculade effrayante eut lieu; les verres tombaient; on college helping others, montait sur les tables, tous, dans un délire de bruit, vociféraient Lesbos! Lesbos! Lesbos! Le cri roulait, devenait indistinct, ne formait plus qu'une sorte de hurlement effroyable, puis, soudain, il semblait s'élancer de nouveau, monter par l'espace, couvrir la plaine, emplir le feuillage épais des grands arbres, s'étendre aux lointains coteaux, aller jusqu'au soleil. La rameuse, devant cette ovation, s'était arrêtée tranquillement. Essay Helping? La grosse blonde étendue au fond du canot tourna la tête d'un air nonchalant, se soulevant sur les coudes; et les deux belles filles, à l'arrière, se mirent à rire en saluant la foule. Alors la vocifération redoubla, faisant trembler l'établissement flottant. Helping Others? Les hommes levaient leurs chapeaux, les femmes agitaient leurs mouchoirs, et toutes les voix, aiguës ou graves, criaient ensemble: Lesbos!

On eût dit que ce peuple, ce ramassis de corrompus, saluait un chef, comme ces escadres qui tirent le canon quand un amiral passe sur leur front. La flotte nombreuse des barques acclamait aussi le canot des femmes, qui repartit de son allure somnolente pour aborder un peu plus loin. M. College Essay Others? Paul, au contraire des autres, avait tiré une clef de sa poche, et, de toute sa force, il sifflait. Writing? Sa maîtresse, nerveuse, pâlie encore, lui tenait le bras pour le faire taire et elle le regardait cette fois avec une rage dans les yeux. Essay Helping Others? Mais lui, semblait exaspéré, par une jalousie d'homme, par une fureur profonde, instinctive, désordonnée. Dr. Amanda University? Il balbutia, les lèvres tremblantes d'indignation: - C'est honteux! on college essay helping others, devrait les noyer comme des chiennes avec une pierre au cou.

Mais Madeleine, brusquement, s'emporta; sa petite voix aigre devint sifflante, et elle parlait avec volubilité, comme pour plaider sa propre cause: - Est-ce que ça te regarde, toi? Sont-elles pas libres de faire ce qu'elles veulent, puisqu'elles ne doivent rien à personne? Fiche-nous la paix avec tes manières et mêle-toi de tes affaires. Mais il lui coupa la parole. - C'est la police que ça regarde, et je les ferai flanquer à Saint-Lazare, moi!

Elle eut un soubresaut: - Oui, moi! Et, en attendant, je te défends de leur parler, tu entends, je te le défends. Alors elle haussa les épaules, et calmée tout à coup: - Mon petit, je ferai ce qui me plaira; si tu n'es pas content, file, et tout de suite. On My Writing Experience? Je ne suis pas ta femme, n'est-ce pas? Alors tais toi. Il ne répondit pas et ils restèrent face à face, avec la bouche crispée et la respiration rapide. A l'autre bout du grand café de bois, les quatre femmes faisaient leur entrée. College Helping Others? Les deux costumées en hommes marchaient devant: l'une maigre, pareille à un garçonnet vieillot avec des teintes jaunes sur les tempes; l'autre, emplissant de sa graisse ses vêtements de flanelle blanche, bombant de sa croupe le large pantalon, se balançait comme une oie grasse, ayant les cuisses énormes et les genoux rentrés. And Contrast? Leurs deux amies les suivaient et la foule des canotiers venait leur serrer les mains.

Elles avaient loué toutes les quatre un petit chalet au bord de l'eau, et elles vivaient là, comme auraient vécu deux ménages. Leur vice était public, officiel, patent. College Others? On en parlait comme d'une chose naturelle, qui les rendait presque sympathiques, et l'on chuchotait tout bas des histoires étranges, des drames nés de furieuses jalousies féminines, et des visites secrètes de femmes connues, d'actrices, à la petite maison du bord de l'eau. Un voisin, révolté de ces bruits scandaleux, avait prévenu la gendarmerie, et le brigadier, suivi d'un homme, était venu faire une enquête. Compare Harry Potter? La mission était délicate; on college essay, ne pouvait, en somme, rien reprocher à ces femmes, qui ne se livraient point à la prostitution.

Le brigadier, fort perplexe, ignorant même à peu près la nature des faits soupçonnés, avait interrogé à l'aventure, et fait un rapport monumental concluant à l'innocence. On en avait ri jusqu'à Saint-Germain. Elles traversaient à petits pas, comme des reines, l'établissement de la Grenouillère; et elles semblaient fières de leur célébrité, heureuses des regards fixés sur elles, supérieures à cette foule, à cette tourbe, à cette plèbe. Madeleine et son amant les regardaient venir, et dans l'oeil de la fille une flamme s'allumait. Lorsque les deux premières furent au bout de la table, Madeleine cria: Pauline! La grosse se retourna, s'arrêta, tenant toujours le bras de son moussaillon femelle: - Tiens!

Madeleine. Helping? Viens donc me parler, ma chérie. Paul crispa ses doigts sur le poignet de sa maîtresse; mais elle lui dit d'un tel air: Tu sais, mon petit, tu peux filer, qu'il se tut et resta seul. Alors elles causèrent tout bas, debout, toutes les trois. Essay Helping Others? Des gaietés heureuses passaient sur leurs lèvres; elles parlaient vite; et Pauline, par instants, regardait Paul à la dérobée avec un sourire narquois et méchant. A la fin, n'y tenant plus, il se leva soudain et fut près d'elles d'un élan, tremblant de tous ses membres. Thesis Cornell? Il saisit Madeleine par les épaules: Viens, je le veux, dit-il, je t'ai défendu de parler à ces gueuses.

Mais Pauline éleva la voix et se mit à l'engueuler avec son répertoire de poissarde. College Others? On riait alentour; on writing, s'approchait; on college essay others, se haussait sur le bout des pieds afin de mieux voir. Essay Helping? Et lui restait interdit sous cette pluie d'injures fangeuses; il lui semblait que les mots sortant de cette bouche et tombant sur lui le salissaient comme des ordures, et, devant le scandale qui commençait, il recula, retourna sur ses pas, et s'accouda sur la balustrade vers le fleuve, le dos tourné aux trois femmes victorieuses. Il resta là, regardant l'eau, et parfois, avec un geste rapide, comme s'il l'eût arrachée, l'enlevait d'un doigt nerveux une larme formée au coin de son oeil. C'est qu'il aimait éperdument, sans savoir pourquoi, malgré ses instincts délicats, malgré sa raison, malgré sa volonté même. College Essay Helping? Il était tombé dans cet amour comme on college essay helping, tombe dans un trou bourbeux. College Helping? D'une nature attendrie et fine, il avait rêvé des passions exquises, idéales et passionnées; et voilà que ce petit criquet de femme, bête, comme toutes les filles, d'une bêtise exaspérante, pas jolie même, maigre et rageuse, l'avait pris, captivé, possédé des pieds à la tête, corps et âme. Importance Of Education In Our Life? Il subissait cet ensorcellement féminin, mystérieux et tout puissant, cette force inconnue, cette domination prodigieuse, venue on others, ne sait d'où, du démon de la chair, et qui jette l'homme le plus sensé aux pieds d'une fille quelconque sans que rien en elle explique son pouvoir fatal et souverain. Et là, derrière son dos, il sentait qu'une chose infâme s'apprêtait. College Essay? Des rires lui entraient au coeur. College Helping Others? Que faire?

Il le savait bien, mais il ne le pouvait pas. Il regardait fixement, sur la berge en face, un pêcheur à la ligne immobile. Soudain le bonhomme enleva brusquement du fleuve un petit poisson d'argent qui frétillait au bout du fil. Sturgill Thesis Cornell University? Puis il essaya de retirer son hameçon, le tordit, le tourna, mais en vain; alors, pris d'impatience, il se mit à tirer, et tout le gosier saignant de la bête sortit avec un paquet d'entrailles. Essay Others? Et Paul frémit, déchiré lui-même jusqu'au coeur; il lui sembla que cet hameçon c'était son amour, et que s'il fallait l'arracher, tout ce qu'il avait dans la poitrine sortirait ainsi au bout d'un fer recourbé, accroché au fond de lui, et dont Madeleine tenait le fil. Une main se posa sur son épaule; il eut un sursaut, se tourna; sa maîtresse était à son côté. Importance Of Education Life? Ils ne se parlèrent pas; et elle s'accouda comme lui à la balustrade, les yeux fixés sur la rivière.

Il cherchait ce qu'il devait dire, et ne trouvait rien. Others? Il ne parvenait même pas à démêler ce qui se passait en lui; tout ce qu'il éprouvait, c'était une joie de la sentir là, près de lui, revenue, et une lâcheté honteuse, un besoin de pardonner tout, de tout permettre pourvu qu'elle ne le quittât point. Enfin, au bout de quelques minutes, il lui demanda d'une voix très douce: Veux-tu que nous nous en allions? il ferait meilleur dans le bateau. Elle répondit: Oui, mon chat. Et il l'aida à descendre dans la yole, la soutenant, lui serrant les mains, tout attendri, avec quelques larmes encore dans les yeux.

Alors elle le regarda en souriant et ils s'embrassèrent de nouveau. Ils remontèrent le fleuve tout doucement, longeant la rive plantée de saules, couverte d'herbes, baignée et tranquille dans la tiédeur de l'après-midi. Lorsqu'ils furent revenus au restaurant Grillon, il était à peine six heures; alors, laissant leur yole, ils partirent à pied dans l'île, vers Bezons, à travers les prairies, le long des hauts peupliers qui bordent le fleuve. Les grands foins, prêts à être fauchés, étaient remplis de fleurs. Writing Experience? Le soleil qui baissait étalait dessus une nappe de lumière rousse et, dans la chaleur adoucie du jour finissant, les flottantes exhalaisons de l'herbe se mêlaient aux humides senteurs du fleuve, imprégnaient l'air d'une langueur tendre, d'un bonheur léger, comme d'une vapeur de bien-être. Une molle défaillance venait aux coeurs, et une espèce de communion avec cette splendeur calme du soir, avec ce vague et mystérieux frisson de vie épandue, avec cette poésie pénétrante, mélancolique, qui semblait sortir des plantes, des choses, s'épanouir, révélée aux sens en cette heure douce et recueillie. Il sentait tout cela, lui; mais elle ne le comprenait pas, elle. Others? Ils marchaient côte à côte; et soudain, lasse de se taire, elle chanta. Writing Experience? Elle chanta de sa voix aigrelette et fausse quelque chose qui courait les rues, un air traînant dans les mémoires, qui déchira brusquement la profonde et sereine harmonie du soir. Alors il la regarda, et il sentit entre eux un infranchissable abîme.

Elle battait les herbes de son ombrelle, la tête un peu baissée, contemplant ses pieds, et chantant, filant des sons, essayant des roulades, osant des trilles. Son petit front, étroit, qu'il aimait tant, était donc vide, vide! Il n'y avait là-dedans que cette musique de serinette; et les pensées qui s'y formaient par hasard étaient pareilles à cette musique. College Helping? Elle ne comprenait rien de lui; ils étaient plus séparés que s'ils ne vivaient pas ensemble. Others? Ses baisers n'allaient donc jamais plus loin que les lèvres? Alors elle releva les yeux vers lui et sourit encore. College Helping Others? Il fut remué jusqu'aux moelles, et, ouvrant les bras, dans un redoublement d'amour, il l'étreignit passionnément.

Comme il chiffonnait sa robe, elle finit par se dégager, en murmurant par compensation: Va, je t'aime bien, mon chat. Mais il la saisit par la taille, et, pris de folie, l'entraîna en courant; et il l'embrassait sur la joue, sur la tempe, sur le cou, tout en sautant d'allégresse. Essay On My? Ils s'abattirent, haletants, au pied d'un buisson incendié par les rayons du soleil couchant, et, avant d'avoir repris haleine, ils s'unirent, sans qu'elle comprît son exaltation. Ils revenaient en se tenant les deux mains, quand soudain à travers les arbres, ils aperçurent sur la rivière le canot monté par les quatre femmes. Essay Helping Others? La grosse Pauline aussi les vit, car elle se redressa, envoyant à Madeleine des baisers. Rising Prices And The Man Essay? Puis elle cria: A ce soir! Madeleine répondit: A ce soir! Paul crut sentir soudain son coeur enveloppé de glace.

Et ils rentrèrent pour dîner. Ils s'installèrent sous une des tonnelles au bord de l'eau et se mirent à manger en silence. Helping? Quand la nuit fut venue, on helping, apporta une bougie, enfermée dans un globe de verre, qui les éclairait d'une lueur faible et vacillante; et l'on entendait à tout moment les explosions de cris des canotiers dans la grande salle du premier. Vers le dessert, Paul, prenant tendrement la main de Madeleine, lui dit: Je me sens très fatigué, ma mignonne; si tu veux, nous nous coucherons de bonne heure. Mais elle avait compris la ruse, et elle lui lança ce regard énigmatique, ce regard à perfidies qui apparaît si vite au fond de l'oeil de la femme. College Essay? Puis, après avoir réfléchi, elle répondit: - Tu te coucheras si tu veux, moi j'ai promis d'aller au bal de la Grenouillère. Il eut un sourire lamentable, un de ces sourires dont on on my writing experience, voile les plus horribles souffrances, mais il répondit d'un ton caressant et navré: Si tu étais bien gentille, nous resterions tous les deux. College Others? Elle fit non de la tête sans ouvrir la bouche.

Il insista: T'en prie! ma bichette. And Contrast Harry Potter Essay? Alors elle rompit brusquement: Tu sais ce que je t'ai dit. College Essay Helping Others? Si tu n'es pas content, la porte est ouverte. Dr. Amanda Sturgill Master's Thesis Cornell? On ne te retient pas. College Others? Quant à moi, j'ai promis: j'irai. Il posa ses deux coudes sur la table, enferma son front dans ses mains, et resta là, rêvant douloureusement. Les canotiers redescendirent en braillant toujours. And Contrast Harry Potter And Twilight Essay? Ils repartaient dans leurs yoles pour le bal de la Grenouillère. Madeleine dit à Paul: Si tu ne viens pas, décide-toi, je demanderai à un de ces messieurs de me conduire. Paul se leva: Allons!, murmura-t-il. Et ils partirent.

La nuit était noire, pleine d'astres, parcourue par une haleine embrasée, par un souffle pesant, chargé d'ardeurs, de fermentations, de germes vifs qui, mêlés à la brise, l'alentissaient. College? Elle promenait sur les visages une caresse chaude, faisait respirer plus vite, haleter un peu, tant elle semblait épaissie et lourde. Les yoles se mettaient en route, portant à l'avant une lanterne vénitienne. Prices And The? On ne distinguait point les embarcations, mais seulement ces petits falots de couleur, rapides et dansants, pareils à des lucioles en délire; et des voix couraient dans l'ombre de tous côtés. La yole des deux jeunes gens glissait doucement. College Helping Others? Parfois, quand un bateau lancé passait près d'eux, ils apercevaient soudain le dos blanc du canotier éclairé par sa lanterne. Lorsqu'ils eurent tourné le coude de la rivière, la Grenouillère leur apparut dans le lointain. Essay On My Writing? L'établissement en fête était orné de girandoles, de guirlandes en veilleuses de couleur, de grappes de lumières. Essay Helping? Sur la Seine circulaient lentement quelques gros bachots représentant des dômes, des pyramides, des monuments compliqués en feux de toutes nuances. College Others? Des festons enflammés traînaient jusqu'à l'eau; et quelquefois un falot rouge ou bleu, au bout d'une immense canne à pêche invisible, semblait une grosse étoile balancée.

Toute cette illumination répandait une lueur alentour du café, éclairait de bas en haut les grands arbres de la berge dont le tronc se détachait en gris pâle, et les feuilles en vert laiteux, sur le champ et du ciel. L'orchestre, composé de cinq artistes de banlieue, jetait au loin sa musique de bastringue, maigre et sautillante, qui fit de nouveau chanter Madeleine. Elle voulut tout de suite entrer. Essay Others? Paul désirait auparavant faire un tour dans l'île; mais il dut céder. L'assistance s'était épurée.

Les canotiers presque seuls restaient avec quelques bourgeois clairsemés et quelques jeunes gens flanqués de filles. Prices And The? Le directeur et organisateur de ce cancan, majestueux dans un habit noir fatigué, promenait en tous sens sa tête ravagée de vieux marchand de plaisirs publics à bon marché. La grosse Pauline et ses compagnes n'étaient pas là; et Paul respira. On dansait: les couples face à face cabriolaient éperdument, jetaient leurs jambes en l'air jusqu'au nez des vis-à-vis. Les femelles, désarticulées des cuisses, bondissaient dans un envolement de jupes révélant leurs dessous. Essay Helping? Leurs pieds s'élevaient au-dessus de leurs têtes avec une facilité surprenante, et elles balançaient leurs ventres, frétillaient de la croupe, secouaient leurs seins, répandant autour d'elles une senteur énergique de femmes en sueur. Les mâles s'accroupissaient comme des crapauds avec des gestes obscènes, se contorsionnaient, grimaçants et hideux, faisaient la roue sur les mains, ou bien, s'efforçant d'être drôles, esquissaient des manières avec une grâce ridicule.

Une grosse bonne et deux garçons servaient les consommations. Ce café-bateau, couvert seulement d'un toit, n'ayant aucune cloison qui le séparât du dehors, la danse échevelée s'étalait en face de la nuit pacifique et du firmament poudré d'astres. Tout à coup le Mont Valérien, là-bas, en face, sembla s'éclairer comme si un incendie se fût allumé derrière. Admission? La lueur s'étendit, s'accentua, envahissant peu à peu le ciel, décrivant un grand cercle lumineux, d'une lumière pâle et blanche. Essay Helping? Puis quelque chose de rouge apparut, grandit, d'un rouge ardent comme un métal sur l'enclume.

Cela se développait lentement en rond, semblait sortir de terre; et la lune, se détachant bientôt de l'horizon, monta doucement dans l'espace. Master's Cornell University? A mesure qu'elle s'élevait, sa nuance pourpre s'atténuait, devenait jaune, d'un jaune clair, éclatant; et l'astre paraissait diminuer à mesure qu'il s'éloignait. Paul le regardait depuis longtemps, perdu dans cette contemplation, oubliant sa maîtresse. College Helping Others? Quand il se retourna, elle avait disparu. Il la chercha, mais ne la trouva pas. Sturgill Master's Thesis Cornell? Il parcourait les tables d'un oeil anxieux, allant et revenant sans cesse, interrogeant l'un et l'autre. College Essay Helping? Personne ne l'avait vue. Il errait ainsi, martyrisé d'inquiétude, quand un des garçons lui dit: C'est madame Madeleine que vous cherchez. Helping? Elle vient de partir tout à l'heure en compagnie de madame Pauline. College Others? Et, au même moment, Paul apercevait, debout à l'autre extrémité du café, le mousse et les deux belles filles, toutes trois liées par la taille, et qui le guettaient en chuchotant.

Il comprit, et, comme un fou, s'élança dans l'île. Il courut d'abord vers Chatou; mais, devant la plaine, il retourna sur ses pas. Importance? Alors il se mit à fouiller 1'épaisseur des taillis, à vagabonder éperdument, s'arrêtant parfois pour écouter. Les crapauds, par tout l'horizon, lançaient leur note métallique et courte. Vers Bougival, un oiseau inconnu modulait quelques sons qui arrivaient affaiblis par la distance. Helping? Sur les larges gazons la lune versait une molle clarté, comme une poussière de ouate; elle pénétrait les feuillages, faisait couler sa lumière sur l'écorce argentée des peupliers, criblait de sa pluie brillante les sommets frémissants des grands arbres. Essay Importance Life? La grisante poésie de cette soirée d'été entrait dans Paul malgré lui, traversait son angoisse affolée, remuait son coeur avec une ironie féroce, développant jusqu'à la rage en son âme douce et contemplative ses besoins d'idéale tendresse, d'épanchements passionnés dans le sein d'une femme adorée et fidèle. Il fut contraint de s'arrêter, étranglé par des sanglots précipités, déchirants. La crise passée, il repartit. Soudain il reçut comme un coup de couteau; on college helping others, s'embrassait, là, derrière ce buisson. Admission Custom? Il y courut, c'était un couple amoureux, dont les deux silhouettes s'éloignèrent vivement à son approche, enlacées, unies dans un baiser sans fin.

Il n'osait pas appeler, sachant bien qu'elle ne répondrait point; et il avait aussi une peur affreuse de les découvrir tout à coup. Les ritournelles des quadrilles avec les solos déchirants du piston, les rires faux de la flûte, les rages aiguës du violon lui tiraillaient le coeur, exaspérant sa souffrance. College? La musique enragée, boitillante, courait sous les arbres, tantôt affaiblie, tantôt grossie dans un souffle passager de brise. Tout à coup il se dit qu'Elle était revenue peut-être? Oui! elle était revenue! pourquoi pas? Il avait perdu la tête sans raison, stupidement, emporté par ses terreurs, par les soupçons désordonnés qui l'envahissaient depuis quelque temps. Et, saisi par une de ces accalmies singulières qui traversent parfois les plus grands désespoirs, il retourna vers le bal. D'un coup d'oeil il parcourut la salle. On My Experience? Elle n'était pas là.

Il fit le tour des tables, et brusquement se trouva de nouveau face à face avec les trois femmes. Essay Helping Others? Il avait apparemment une figure désespérée et drôle, car toutes trois ensemble éclatèrent de gaieté. Il se sauva, repartit dans l'île, se rua à travers les taillis, haletant. Writing? - Puis il écouta de nouveau,- il écouta longtemps, car ses oreilles bourdonnaient; mais, enfin, il crut entendre un peu plus loin un petit rire perçant qu'il connaissait bien; et il avança tout doucement, rampant, écartant les branches, la poitrine tellement secouée par son coeur qu'il ne pouvait plus respirer. Deux voix murmuraient des paroles qu'il n'entendait pas encore. College? Puis elles se turent. Compare And Contrast Harry Potter? Alors il eut une envie immense de fuir, de ne pas voir, de ne pas savoir, de se sauver pour toujours, loin de cette passion furieuse qui le ravageait.

Il allait retourner à Chatou, prendre le train, et ne reviendrait plus, ne la reverrait plus jamais. Helping? Mais son image brusquement l'envahit, et il l'aperçut en sa pensée quand elle s'éveillait au matin, dans leur lit tiède, se pressait câline contre lui, jetant ses bras à son cou, avec ses cheveux répandus un peu mêlés sur le front, avec ses yeux fermés encore et ses lèvres ouvertes pour le premier baiser; et le souvenir subit de cette caresse matinale l'emplit d'un regret frénétique et d'un désir forcené. On parlait de nouveau; et il s'approcha courbé en deux. In Our? Puis un léger cri courut sous les branches tout prés de lui. Essay Others? Un cri! Un de ces cris d'amour qu'il avait appris à connaître aux heures éperdues de leur tendresse.

Il avançait encore, toujours, comme malgré lui, attiré invinciblement, sans avoir conscience de rien. Importance Of Education Life? et il les vit. Oh! c'eût été un homme, l'autre mais cela! cela! Il se sentait enchaîné par leur infamie même. Essay Helping Others? Et il restait là, anéanti, bouleversé, comme s'il eût découvert tout à coup un cadavre cher et mutilé, un crime contre nature, monstrueux, une immonde profanation. Alors, dans un éclair de pensée involontaire, il songea au petit poisson dont il avait senti arracher les entrailles. Prompts? Mais Madeleine murmura : Pauline! du même ton passionné qu'elle disait: Paul! et il fut traversé d'une telle douleur qu'il s'enfuit de toutes ses forces. Il heurta deux arbres, tomba sur une rame, repartit et se trouva soudain devant le fleuve, devant le bras rapide éclairé par la lune. College Others? Le courant torrentueux faisait de grands tourbillons où se jouait la lumière. Essay Helping? La berge haute dominait l'eau comme une falaise, laissant à son pied une large bande obscure où les remous s'entendaient dans l'ombre. Sur l'autre rive, les maisons de campagne de Croissy s'étageaient en pleine clarté.

Paul vit tout cela comme dans un songe, comme à travers un souvenir; il ne songeait à rien, ne comprenait rien, et toutes les choses, son existence même, lui apparaissaient vaguement, lointaines, oubliées, finies. Le fleuve était là. Essay Helping? Comprit-il ce qu'il faisait? Voulut-il mourir? Il était fou. Writing Prompts? Il se retourna cependant vers l'île, vers Elle; et, dans l'air calme de la nuit où dansaient toujours les refrains affaiblis et obstinés du bastringue, il lança d'une voix désespérée, suraiguë, surhumaine, un effroyable cri: Madeleine!. Son appel déchirant traversa le large silence du ciel, courut par tout l'horizon.

Puis, d'un bond formidable, d'un bond de bête, il sauta dans la rivière. College Helping? L'eau jaillit, se referma, et, de la place où il avait disparu, une succession de grands cercles partit, élargissant jusqu'à l'autre berge leurs ondulations brillantes. Les deux femmes avaient entendu. On My? Madeleine se dressa: C'est Paul. College Essay Helping? Un soupçon surgit en son âme. Dr. Amanda Sturgill Master's Cornell University? Il s'est noyé, dit-elle.

Et elle s'élança vers la rive, où la grosse Pauline la rejoignit. Un lourd bachot monté par deux hommes tournait et retournait sur place. College? Un des bateliers ramait, l'autre enfonçait dans l'eau un grand bâton et semblait chercher quelque chose. Prices Common? Pauline cria: Que faites vous? Qu'y a-t-il?

Une voix inconnue répondit: C'est un homme qui vient de se noyer. Les deux femmes, pressées l'une contre l'autre, hagardes, suivaient les évolutions de la barque. College Helping Others? La musique de la Grenouillère folâtrait toujours au loin, semblait accompagner en cadence les mouvements des sombres pêcheurs; et la rivière, qui cachait maintenant un cadavre, tournoyait, illuminée. Les recherches se prolongeaient. College Essay Others? L'attente horrible faisait grelotter Madeleine. College Essay Others? Enfin, après une demi heure au moins, un des hommes annonça: Je le tiens! Et il fit remonter sa longue gaffe, doucement, tout doucement. Of Education Life? Puis quelque chose de gros apparut à la surface de l'eau. Others? L'autre marinier quitta ses rames, et tous deux, unissant leurs forces, halant sur la masse inerte, la firent culbuter dans leur bateau. Ensuite ils gagnèrent la terre, en cherchant une place éclairée et basse.

Au moment où ils abordaient, les femmes arrivaient aussi. Dès qu'elle le vit, Madeleine recula d'horreur. And Contrast Potter And Twilight Essay? Sous la lumière de la lune, il semblait vert déjà, avec sa bouche, ses yeux, son nez, ses habits pleins de vase. College? Ses doigts fermés et raidis étaient affreux. College Helping Others? Une espèce d'enduit noirâtre et liquide couvrait tout son corps. Essay? La figure paraissait enflée, et de ses cheveux collés par le limon une eau sale coulait sans cesse. Les deux hommes l'examinèrent. - Tu le connais? dit l'un.

L'autre, le passeur de Croissy, hésitait: Oui, il me semble bien que j'ai vu cette tête-là; mais tu sais, comme ça, on essay importance in our, ne reconnaît pas bien. College Helping? Puis, soudain: Mais c'est monsieur Paul! - Qui ça, monsieur Paul? demanda son camarade. Essay Writing Experience? Le premier reprit: - Mais monsieur Paul Baron, le fils du sénateur, ce p'tit qu'était si amoureux. L'autre ajouta philosophiquement: - Eh bien, il a fini de rigoler maintenant; c'est dommage tout de même quand on essay helping others, est riche. Madeleine sanglotait, tombée par terre.

Pauline s'approcha du corps et demanda: Est ce qu'il est bien mort? - tout à fait? Les hommes haussèrent les épaules: Oh ! après ce temps-là ! pour sûr. Puis l'un d'eux interrogea: C'est chez Grillon qu'il logeait? - Oui, reprit l'autre; il faut le reconduire, y aura de la braise. Ils remontèrent dans leur bateau et repartirent, s'éloignant lentement à cause du courant rapide; et longtemps encore après qu'on ne les vit plus de la place où les femmes étaient restées, on admission essay writing, entendit tomber dans l'eau les coups réguliers des avirons. Alors Pauline prit dans ses bras la pauvre Madeleine éplorée, la câlina, l'embrassa longtemps, la consola: Que veux-tu, ce n'est point ta faute, n'est-ce pas? On ne peut pourtant pas empêcher les hommes de faire des bêtises. College Essay? Il l'a voulu, tant pis pour lui, après tout! - Puis la relevant: Allons, ma chérie, viens t'en coucher à la maison; tu ne peux pas rentrer chez Grillon ce soir. Importance? - Elle l'embrassa de nouveau: Va, nous te guérirons, dit-elle.

Madeleine se releva, et, pleurant toujours, mais avec des sanglots affaiblis, la tête sur l'épaule de Pauline, comme réfugiée dans une tendresse plus intime et plus sûre, plus familière et plus confiante, elle partit à tout petits pas. Cette nouvelle fut publiée en 1881 dans le recueil La Maison Tellier.

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essay define discuss The Academic Essay. The academic essay is merely a specific writing genre#150;as is the love letter, newspaper editorial, or pop-fiction. As a genre, it functions within a set of norms, rules, and conventions. Essay Helping Others! The purpose of this discussion is to make clear to you what those rules and sturgill master's thesis norms are, and essay helping how to use them to express your argument clearly. The purpose of the master's academic essay is to persuade by reasoned discourse. Scholars use the essay amongst themselves to advance ideas. Its value as an instructional tool is to assist students in developing their critical thinking skills. As you recall, critical thinking is defined as: the ability to college helping, read theory accurately, appropriate it meaningfully, apply it independently, generate results based on that application, analyze the results, and form a clear argument based on those results that can be defended with a specific line of reasoning. A good academic essay engenders this process and clearly demonstrates that the process has been performed successfully. Dr. Amanda Master's Thesis! With this in mind let's examine how to write an academic essay.

Do you frequently find yourself struggling with the helping others introduction to your essays? Do you not know how to begin the essay? Do you find yourself searching for a generalizing statement that will get things going, and trying to find a delicate balance between BS'ing and saying something meaningful? If so, that's because you are not following the norms for the introduction to the academic essay. Essay Custom Writing! Following this norm actually makes introductions a piece of cake and gets you right into the body of the essay. Here is the norm: The purpose of the others introduction is two-fold: 1. To introduce the prices and the theoretical framework that will guide your analysis.

2. To introduce the college essay helping others thesis statement that will organize your paper. Following this norm allows you to cut to the chase. No more generalizing statements of philosophical speculation that you venture forth hoping that it won't get shot down. You know, crap like Hemingway was perhaps one of the most visionary authors of his time. or The Western is perhaps the most uniquely American of all the genres. Rather, if the purpose of the essay is to demonstrate that you have appropriated a theory and applied it independently to produce results, then the function of the essay importance of education introduction becomes more focused: to essay helping, introduce the theory#150;or theoretical framework#150;that you have decided to use.

Hence you will find that many essays begin with such statements as In his book. Or, In her essay. IMPORTANT NOTE: One of the main reasons that the norm of the Introduction developed this way is because of an important rule of the Academic Essay: Avoid making statements that you cannot prove. The problem with the generalizing/philosophical/BS'ing statements like Hemingway. and The Western. is that they cannot be proven through reasoned discourse. Moreover, to even try and do so would require voluminous amounts of discourse for something that is not even your thesis: what you actually ARE setting out to prove.

As a result, the genre of the Academic Essay has evolved into the above norm. It still meets an introduction's purpose of orienting the reader, it just does so in a very specific manner. Having accomplished that, the expectation for an essay is that you will introduce a thesis statement that is directly related to that theoretical framework (or its application). As a result, a major convention of the academic essay is that: The introduction ends with the thesis statement. Having stated a thesis, you are expected to then go and prove it through the body of the essay. That said, it is important to discuss what's at life stake in making a thesis statement. There are four basic logical forms for a thesis statement: #149; A banal thesis statement. #149; A simple thesis statement. #149; A complex thesis statement.

#149; An impossible thesis statement. Let's discuss each of these quickly before moving on. A banal thesis statement is a statement that does not really say anything#150;it is in fact meaningless because it is either so overly general or so evident as to not be of significance. Essay Others! Here's an example from literature. Dr. Amanda Cornell University! A frequent argument students will make is college others, This author used symbolism to and the man essay, make his point. The statement, however, is meaningless precisely because it is college essay, not of significance: every author writing literature uses symbolism of one kind or another, either using language metaphorically or metonymically. Thus, to attempt to single out or make a distinction of a piece for using symbolism is to not say anything that even needs proving to begin with. A simple thesis statement is not quite what it may sound like. A simple thesis statement means that only college essay helping, one main point or argument is going to be proved.

The term simple argument can thus be misleading because the argument itself can and frequently is very theoretically sophisticated. What makes them simple is college essay others, that in terms of their logical structure, they only take on one line of and contrast and twilight essay proof, and college hence, their organization of proof will be simple. One has to be careful, however, because sometimes one main argument may require SEVERAL supporting arguments. Cornell! The example here would be the argument that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre. Here the writer has only one thing to prove, but in order to do so will have to establish the essay helping others elements that comprise the Western Genre and demonstrate how the film embodies them--not a small task. Simple thesis statements are eminently preferable in terms of writing an essay for a course. It allows you to focus on your points and your proofs rather than getting lost in the organization of your arguments. A complex thesis statement means that the thesis has more than one point to prove. Compare And Contrast Harry Potter Essay! In this respect, the essay will have to organize more than one line of reasoning in so far that more than one thing has to be proven. Complex theses are not necessarily more theoretically sophisticated than simple thesis statements, they are only more difficult to organize clearly. In this respect, they are not worth what they entail and should be avoided.

An example of essay helping others a complex thesis statement would be something like: Faulkner's novels critique the sturgill thesis university ideologies of patriarchy and racism. This would be an appropriate analysis for essay others the work of Faulkner, but I'm not sure it would be worth it. To begin with, it is not clear what the writer has to college essay, gain in terms of proving BOTH of these aspects of the work rather than just the one. Instead, with this complex thesis, there are going to be long sections of the essay where half of what needs to helping, be proved will be left suspended while the other half gets discussed. Custom! In addition, the thesis picks the work of Faulkner which necessitates discussing every book, rather than just one. Helping Others! Thus it is that an important convention of the college helping others academic essay is that: A complex thesis statement can usually be restructured into a more theoretically sophisticated (if not interesting) simple thesis statement. Making an Argument. As stated earlier, the academic essay is an exercise in reasoned persuasion. In this respect, the thesis statement is an important organizational structure insofar as it establishes how the rest of the essay will be organized. Classical logic maintains that there are 3 basic kinds of persuasive statements: statements of fact, statements of value (or evaluation), and college essay others statements of policy (or action, which argue what we should do). Unless otherwise specified, the dr. amanda sturgill university first of these, the statement of fact, is the form that the thesis statement for an academic essay should take#150;the obvious exception being when you write evaluative criticism (which you will NEVER do in my course).

Statements of fact can themselves be grouped into two basic forms: arguments of classification, and arguments of operation or function. It is possible to make other distinctions, like for example, arguments of relationship (how to things relate to each other) but these distinctions can be readily subsumed into these two basic groups. Arguments of classification are when you establish some sort of criteria, and then argue that something meets or fails to meet that criteria. Helping Others! The earlier example that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre is an example of an admission prompts argument of classification. Having established what comprises the Western Genre, the writer will then go on to prove how Star Wars embodies, contains, or possesses those elements. The writer will, in other words, prove that Star Wars meets that criteria. Arguments of operation or function argues in terms of what something does, or how it functions. The earlier argument that Faulkner's work critiques the ideology of essay others patriarchy is an example of function. This statement argues that Faulkner's work DOES something: it criticizes the ideology of patriarchy. Note that unlike the argument of classification, the essay writing experience writer of this essay SEEMS to have to college essay helping, do more to prove their thesis. They will not only have to define what the ideology of patriarchy is#150;and thus establish criteria#150;they will also have to demonstrate that Faulkner's work DOES something with that criteria.

The question of HOW leads to a discussion of the body of the essay. The Body of the Essay. From a conceptual standpoint, the function of the body of the essay is to prove the thesis statement laid out in essay, the introduction. Easy enough. This section discusses how the writer accomplishes that proof. In the discussion of types of argument, I made the point that the others writer will have to establish criteria that can be used to prove their argument. The body of the essay is the prices and the man essay location where the writer accomplishes that. An introduction is precisely that: It INTRODUCES the theoretical framework and the thesis statement.

It does not DESCRIBE or DISCUSS these two things. This is a fairly common mistake that beginning essay writers make. They fear that they have not said enough in the intro and as a result, go on to discuss aspects of their theory or elaborate on college essay others, a thesis. The problem with doing so is potter and twilight, that it screws up your organization. What comes next is no longer clear to the reader. If you keep it clear to yourself that the purpose of the introduction to helping, your essay is to admission, only INTRODUCE your theoretical framework, and your thesis statement, then the function of the essay helping body of your essay will also become evident to the reader. They will expect you to establish criteria so that you can prove your thesis. As a result, another important norm of the academic essay is: A primary function of the body of the essay is to establish the criteria by which the thesis statement will be proven. Thus it is that having argued that Star Wars is a Western, the body of the paper is going to have to first establish the elements that comprise the Western#150;it will have to establish the criteria by which the thesis can be proven. To argue that Faulkner's work criticizes thee ideology of patriarchy is going to require that the writer establish what the ideology of patriarchy is.

Establishing the criteria by which the dr. amanda sturgill cornell thesis statement will be proven leads to the next logical step: demonstrating how the object under investigation meets those criteria. Clearly it is college essay helping others, not enough for the Faulkner essayist to just define what the ideology of patriarchy is. Their thesis is that Faulkner's work criticizes that ideology. As a result, they will have to point to specific things within the text and argue that they relate to those criteria IN A SPECIFIC WAY#150;in this case through a process of essay custom prompts criticism. This process of relating the others object of essay writing experience investigation back to the established criteria is another fundamental component of the body of the essay. Without it, the college essay helping proof is not complete. As silly as that sounds, I kid you not that the most frequent mistake of beginning essay writers is a failure to relate their analysis back to the criteria they have established. Thus it is that another important norm for the academic essay is: Relate the prices and the man essay analysis back to the terms and concepts of the established criteria. The Star Wars example brings up another fundamental logical task to this process. From the beginning you have probably thought the Star Wars thesis to not be very feasible. Essay Others! The film is not set in the West, and college essay helping it occurs in the future.

The question becomes, however, whether these are ESSENTIAL criteria to the Western, and if not, what is? In terms of college others proving that thesis statement, the writer is going to have to clearly establish what the elements of the Western Genre are, and compare and contrast potter and twilight then relate aspects of the film back to ALL of those criteria. Herein lies the college essay helping others essential importance of completeness to that process. If the Star Wars writer establishes the criteria but can only on my writing experience, point to the gun-fighting that occurs in the film, then their essay will fail to college others, persuade. Dr. Amanda University! Their essay will fail to persuade precisely because it inadequately addresses the scope of the essay helping criteria. Thus it is importance, that another important norm for this process is: Fully address the college essay established criteria. It is very important to note that fully addressing the scope of the criteria does NOT mean that the object under discussion has to common man essay, fully meet ALL the helping criteria. Common Man Essay! To stick with the Star Wars example, the writer can not IGNORE the issue of setting and even remotely hope to college, persuade the audience. In some way, the writer is essay life, going to have to address the fact that both time and place are out of the bounds of the Western. This is the point precisely. The author will have to ADDRESS that point#150;those criteria#150;not necessarily MEET those criteria.

In this respect, the writer is going to have make a supporting argument about how these criteria relate to each other in terms of comprising the genre (or in a logical sense the whole). The important point is that all criteria are addressed adequately. Failure to address any of the established criteria creates a gap in logic. Subsequently, the reasoning process (and its ability to persuade) fails. Fully relating the object of the thesis to the established criteria fulfills the helping logical requirements necessary to essay, persuade reasonably and allows the writer to college essay, draw conclusions. Dr. Amanda Sturgill Master's Thesis University! Before that process is discussed, however, it is necessary to examine an important component of this relating back process. The Role of Description. Relating the object of investigation or the object of the college essay helping thesis back to the established criteria is necessarily going to involve description. Description is frequently an admission writing prompts unclear and thorny issue for writers of the college helping academic essay#150;especially in terms of dr. amanda master's thesis cornell scope (how much is enough?). The purpose of college helping description, however, clarifies the issue of scope.

The purpose of description to is to make clear, or establish WHAT in compare potter essay, the object of investigation (the film, the scene, the shot) relates to the criteria being used. It therefore becomes important for the writer to helping others, use description in such a manner as to establish the basis of the relationship between the master's thesis cornell object and the criteria. Furthermore, the writer should LIMIT description to accomplishing only this task. Added description is not only superfluous, but distracts from trying to prove your argument. As a result, another important norm for the body of the academic essay is: Subordinate description to the purpose of analysis. As stated above the process of fully relating the object of the essay helping thesis to the established criteria has the effect of fulfilling the logical requirements. Importance Of Education In Our! It is THAT task which ultimately persuades, not the conclusion itself. It is for this reason that, in college helping others, some respects, the admission custom writing prompts conclusion does not seem to have a FUNDAMENTAL role in college essay helping others, the process of reasoned persuasion. That in itself probably accounts for compare and contrast potter how many dopey tips exist for what to do with a conclusion, like: repeat the thesis statement (like people have forgotten it despite the fact that you've been working to college helping others, prove it the entire time) or some other such thing. What to do with a conclusion if the work of proof is already done? The most effective thing to do with a conclusion is to first signal that the work is coming to and contrast harry, close, and then close off the discussion itself by stating something definitive about the work.

Like the introduction, then, the conclusion has a dual role: to college essay helping, signal the transition to closure, and to close the discussion with a definitive statement. The work of the conclusion should reference the thesis, without necessarily repeating the thesis (or the steps by which it was proven) It should then say something definitive that signals closure by pointing to the implications of college essay helping others what you've discussed, by amplifying what you've discussed, or by contextualizing what you've discussed. In each case, you are striving to close discussion by being definitive, and you are taking caution not to violate rule #1 of the academic essay: avoid statements that you cannot prove. To stay with the running examples, the college helping conclusion to the Faulkner paper could look something like this: . it therefore serves as an example of how literary texts structure their criticisms of dominant ideologies. (pointing to the implications of proving your argument). Thus, far from being a portrait of college helping others its time Faulkner's work demonstrates that literary works actively engage ideologies. (amplifying your argument) Rather than a story centered exclusively on war, Hemingway's novel instead participates in the reinforcement of dominant ideologies with American culture. (Contextualizing the argument) Note that the similarity here is how definitive these statements are. They draw upon the work that has been done, but say something different and final that is logically based upon college helping others, what has been discussed.

There are, of course, variations on the genre of the academic essay--some rather large difference exist, for example, between the social sciences and the humanites. College Essay Helping! This discussion is college essay, based on the humanties approach. Sturgill Master's Thesis Cornell University! Other variations can result from the idiosyncracies of specific instructors. To the degree that what is written here sounds heavy handed and inflexible, I caution instead that such tone is trying to reflect the manner in which your own analysis and writing will need to college essay others, sound precise and rigorous#150;the standards by which the academic essay is sturgill master's, evaluated. The precision and rigor with which these norms and conventions are applied should function only to demand that your own analysis and reason engender these standards. They are thus meant to elevate your thinking, not control it. The principles by which the academic essay structures itself is designed to be a discipline that frees your thinking, not subjugate it. Within its conventions is unlimited creative potential whose only college essay helping, demand, ultimately, is that you say something meaningful that others can be persuaded of via your logic. What I have attempted to do here is make the norms and conventions of the genre explicit so that you can refine your skills working within it. Mastering this genre has the benefit of developing your skill to college essay, analyze situations using explicit criteria, and be able to make decisions based on that analysis.

More than a few people have found that possession of such a skill is invaluable in life and professional endeavors.

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College Essay About Helping Others – 498926 – Dapoer…

Kodak is at death’s door; Fujifilm, its old rival, is thriving. Why? Add this article to your reading list by clicking this button. LENIN is said to college essay have sneered that a capitalist will sell you the rope to hang him. The quote may be spurious, but it contains a grain of truth. Capitalists quite often invent the harry potter, technology that destroys their own business. Eastman Kodak is essay others a picture-perfect example. It built one of the first digital cameras in 1975. That technology, followed by the development of smartphones that double as cameras, has battered Kodak's old film- and camera-making business almost to harry potter and twilight essay death.

Strange to recall, Kodak was the Google of its day. Founded in 1880, it was known for its pioneering technology and innovative marketing. “You press the button, we do the college others, rest,” was its slogan in prices and the common 1888. By 1976 Kodak accounted for 90% of college essay helping others film and dr. amanda sturgill, 85% of camera sales in America. Until the 1990s it was regularly rated one of the essay, world's five most valuable brands. Then came digital photography to college others replace film, and smartphones to replace cameras. Kodak's revenues peaked at others nearly $16 billion in 1996 and its profits at $2.5 billion in 1999. Potter And Twilight. The consensus forecast by analysts is that its revenues in 2011 were $6.2 billion.

It recently reported a third-quarter loss of $222m, the ninth quarterly loss in three years. In 1988, Kodak employed over 145,000 workers worldwide; at the last count, barely one-tenth as many. Its share price has fallen by nearly 90% in the past year (see chart). For weeks, rumours have swirled around Rochester, the company town that Kodak still dominates, that unless the college essay others, firm quickly sells its portfolio of intellectual property, it will go bust. Two announcements on dr. amanda thesis university January 10th—that it is restructuring into two business units and suing Apple and helping, HTC over various alleged patent infringements—gave hope to optimists. But the rising prices and the common man essay, restructuring could be in preparation for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

While Kodak suffers, its long-time rival Fujifilm is doing rather well. The two firms have much in common. Both enjoyed lucrative near-monopolies of college their home markets: Kodak selling film in America, Fujifilm in Japan. A good deal of the dr. amanda sturgill master's, trade friction during the essay, 1990s between America and Japan sprang from Kodak's desire to keep cheap Japanese film off its patch. Both firms saw their traditional business rendered obsolete. But whereas Kodak has so far failed to adapt adequately, Fujifilm has transformed itself into a solidly profitable business, with a market capitalisation, even after a rough year, of some $12.6 billion to Kodak's $220m. Why did these two firms fare so differently? Both saw change coming. Larry Matteson, a former Kodak executive who now teaches at the University of admission custom Rochester's Simon School of Business, recalls writing a report in 1979 detailing, fairly accurately, how different parts of the market would switch from film to digital, starting with government reconnaissance, then professional photography and finally the mass market, all by 2010.

He was only a few years out. Fujifilm, too, saw omens of digital doom as early as the 1980s. It developed a three-pronged strategy: to squeeze as much money out essay, of the film business as possible, to prepare for essay importance of education, the switch to digital and to develop new business lines. Both firms realised that digital photography itself would not be very profitable. “Wise businesspeople concluded that it was best not to helping hurry to writing experience switch from college helping, making 70 cents on the dollar on film to importance of education in our maybe five cents at most in digital,” says Mr Matteson. But both firms had to adapt; Kodak was slower. A culture of complacency. Its culture did not help. Despite its strengths—hefty investment in research, a rigorous approach to manufacturing and good relations with its local community—Kodak had become a complacent monopolist.

Fujifilm exposed this weakness by essay helping, bagging the sturgill thesis cornell university, sponsorship of the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles while Kodak dithered. The publicity helped Fujifilm's far cheaper film invade Kodak's home market. Another reason why Kodak was slow to essay change was that its executives “suffered from a mentality of importance of education in our perfect products, rather than the high-tech mindset of make it, launch it, fix it,” says Rosabeth Moss Kanter of helping others Harvard Business School, who has advised the firm. Working in a one-company town did not help, either. Kodak's bosses in Rochester seldom heard much criticism of the essay custom writing prompts, firm, she says. Helping. Even when Kodak decided to diversify, it took years to make its first acquisition. It created a widely admired venture-capital arm, but never made big enough bets to rising prices man essay create breakthroughs, says Ms Kanter. Bad luck played a role, too. Kodak thought that the thousands of chemicals its researchers had created for use in film might instead be turned into college essay helping others, drugs. But its pharmaceutical operations fizzled, and were sold in the 1990s. Fujifilm diversified more successfully.

Film is a bit like skin: both contain collagen. Just as photos fade because of oxidation, cosmetics firms would like you to think that skin is preserved with anti-oxidants. Essay Importance In Our. In Fujifilm's library of 200,000 chemical compounds, some 4,000 are related to anti-oxidants. So the company launched a line of cosmetics, called Astalift, which is college essay sold in Asia and is being launched in Europe this year. Fujifilm also sought new outlets for its expertise in film: for example, making optical films for LCD flat-panel screens. It has invested $4 billion in the business since 2000. And this has paid off. In one sort of film, to expand the importance of education in our, LCD viewing angle, Fujifilm enjoys a 100% market share. George Fisher, who served as Kodak's boss from helping, 1993 until 1999, decided that its expertise lay not in chemicals but in imaging. Admission. He cranked out digital cameras and offered customers the ability to college others post and share pictures online.

A brilliant boss might have turned this idea into something like Facebook, but Mr Fisher was not that boss. He failed to rising man essay outsource much production, which might have made Kodak more nimble and college helping others, creative. He struggled, too, to essay experience adapt Kodak's “razor blade” business model. Kodak sold cheap cameras and relied on customers buying lots of expensive film. (Just as Gillette makes money on others the blades, not the dr. amanda master's cornell, razors.) That model obviously does not work with digital cameras. Still, Kodak did eventually build a hefty business out of digital cameras—but it lasted only a few years before camera phones scuppered it. Kodak also failed to read emerging markets correctly. College Helping. It hoped that the new Chinese middle class would buy lots of film. They did for a short while, but then decided that digital cameras were cooler. Cornell. Many leap-frogged from no camera straight to a digital one.

Kodak's leadership has been inconsistent. Its strategy changed with each of several new chief executives. The latest, Antonio Perez, who took charge in 2005, has focused on college essay turning the firm into a powerhouse of digital printing (something he learnt about at his old firm, Hewlett-Packard, and essay on my writing experience, which Kodak still insists will save it). He has also tried to make money from the firm's huge portfolio of intellectual property—hence the lawsuit against Apple. At Fujifilm, too, technological change sparked an internal power struggle. College Helping. At first the dr. amanda master's cornell, men in the consumer-film business, who refused to see the looming crisis, prevailed. But the eventual winner was Shigetaka Komori, who chided them as “lazy” and “irresponsible” for not preparing better for the digital onslaught. Named boss incrementally between 2000 and others, 2003, he quickly set about overhauling the firm. He has spent around $9 billion on 40 companies since 2000. He slashed costs and jobs.

In one 18-month stretch, he booked more than ?250 billion ($3.3 billion) in restructuring costs for depreciation and to shed superfluous distributors, development labs, managers and researchers. “It was a painful experience,” says Mr Komori. “But to see the situation as it was, nobody could survive. So we had to reconstruct the business model.” This sort of pre-emptive action, even softened with generous payouts, is hardly typical of corporate Japan. Few Japanese managers are prepared to act fast, make big cuts and go on a big acquisition spree, observes Kenichi Ohmae, the father of Japanese management consulting. For Mr Komori, it meant unwinding the essay on my writing, work of his predecessor, who had handpicked him for the job—a big taboo in Japan. Still, Mr Ohmae reckons that Japan Inc's long-term culture, which involves little shareholder pressure for short-term performance and tolerates huge cash holdings, made it easier for Fujifilm to pursue Mr Komori's vision. American shareholders might not have been so patient. Surprisingly, Kodak acted like a stereotypical change-resistant Japanese firm, while Fujifilm acted like a flexible American one.

Mr Komori says he feels “regret and emotion” about the college essay, plight of his “respected competitor”. Yet he hints that Kodak was complacent, even when its troubles were obvious. The firm was so confident about its marketing and brand that it tried to take the easy way out, says Mr Komori. In the rising prices and the, 2000s it tried to buy ready-made businesses, instead of helping taking the time and expense to develop technologies in-house. And it failed to diversify enough, says Mr Komori: “Kodak aimed to be a digital company, but that is a small business and not enough to essay others support a big company.” Perhaps the challenge was simply too great. “It is a very hard problem. I've not seen any other firm that had such a massive gulf to get across,” says Clay Christensen, author of college helping others “The Innovator's Dilemma”, an influential business book. “It was such a fundamentally different technology that came in, so there was no way to use the old technology to meet the challenge.”

Kodak's blunder was not like the time when Digital Equipment Corporation, an American computer-maker, failed to spot the significance of college essay helping personal computers because its managers were dozing in their comfy chairs. It was more like “seeing a tsunami coming and there's nothing you can do about it,” says Mr Christensen. Dominant firms in other industries have been killed by college helping, smaller shocks, he points out. Of the 316 department-store chains of admission essay writing prompts a few decades ago, only Dayton Hudson has adapted well to the modern world, and only because it started an others, entirely new business, Target. And that is sturgill thesis cornell university what creative destruction can do to a business that has changed only gradually—the shops of today would not look alien to college helping time-travellers from 50 years ago, even if their supply chains have changed beyond recognition. Could Kodak have avoided its current misfortunes? Some say it could have become the equivalent of “Intel Inside” for the smartphone camera—a brand that consumers trust. But Canon and essay writing, Sony were better placed to essay helping achieve that, given their superior intellectual property, and neither has succeeded in prices and the common doing so. Unlike people, companies can in theory live for ever. But most die young, because the college helping others, corporate world, unlike society at large, is compare harry essay a fight to the death. Fujifilm has mastered new tactics and survived.

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